It’s not every day that someone ends up in a sinking car, but it’s always better to prepare for the worst in advance. While this isn’t the type of survival situation you might expect, it does happen, and some foresight can prove invaluable.
In South Africa we have no idea on exactly how many people may die in such an exceptional situation, but experts say that in America, drownings in submerged vehicles account for up to 10% of all drowning deaths.
It’s best to be prepared in the event that your car is suddenly submerged due to a flash flood or the vehicle careens off the road into a lake. Acting fast can mean the difference between life, brain damage or death.
What to expect from a sinking vehicle? According to Arrive Alive:
- The speed at which a car will sink depends on several factors, including the distance of the fall, speed and angle of entry and the physical characteristics of the vehicle.
- Most entries of vehicles into the water are smooth entries with the water cushioning the blow. Most people survive the initial impact with minimal or no injury at all.
- If you remain relatively calm there should be enough time for you to take action to save your life and the lives of your passengers.
- Newer cars that are better at keeping sound out will likely also be better at keeping water out.
- Most vehicles will float for a minute or two before beginning to sink. Cars usually sink at an angle, with the weight of the engine pulling down the front first. A rear-engine car sinks trunk-first.
- It is possible that the vehicle might flip onto its roof in deeper water.
- In a test in a controlled environment experts from the police tried to sink a car and were surprised to find that it took 5 minutes for the vehicle to sink.
- In a car that sinks front first, there will be a bubble of air in the back, but you should stay in the front … the front windows are often bigger and easier to get out of — for all passengers.
- Stay calm
- Experts agree that before you leap into action you should take a few deep breaths and calm yourself down.
- Making educated decisions could mean the difference between life and death.
- Once you have panicked you can’t think clearly, you can’t focus and you won’t be able to save yourself.
- Staying calm and helping any passengers to stay calm is the single most important thing you can do to survive a car sinking in water.
- Many people fear that if they are wearing a seatbelt they will not be able to unbuckle it and will be trapped in the vehicle.
- This fear is however unfound – A seatbelt is designed for quick release, and without it there is nothing to hold you in place, nothing to keep your head from slamming into the steering wheel or dashboard. (Hitting water at speed is comparable to hitting a wall.)
- If you were knocked unconscious, you would be helpless. You wouldn’t have a chance to save yourself, let alone help anyone else. If you and any passengers are wearing seatbelts, chances of survival are much greater.
- The first instinct may be to unbuckle your seat belt and try to escape, but experts warn that passengers should first check their surroundings.
- You want to make sure the impact is over before you take off your seat belt. This might include the possibility of other cars or foreign objects heading toward the vehicle.
- If a belt won’t release, find something with which to cut it.
- Unbuckling your seat belt will allow greater freedom of movement.
- Be aware that the seatbelts might not retract; take care not to get tangled.
- If your head restraints are removable, pull them out when you release your seatbelt to enable easy passage for rear passengers.
- Opening windows / doors
- Once a vehicle sinks it may turn sideways or upside down.
- Occupants who are not buckled in with a seat belt will float within the vehicle and can easily become disoriented. It then becomes extremely difficult for them to find the windows or door handles.
- If you remain in your seated position (as you will if your seatbelt remains fastened) you will retain your orientation regardless of what position the vehicle is in.
- In some instances, the vehicle will sink quickly, and you won’t have time to roll down the windows. Again, stay calm, unbuckle your seat belt and check on passengers.
- If you are sinking rapidly, you need to wait for the water pressure inside the vehicle to become equal to the pressure outside.
- Even though it might sound strange, it might be best to let the vehicle sink further and wait until things settle. Let the vehicle fill up with more water before attempting to open a window or door.
- This is because water rushing against a vehicle weighs thousands of pounds.
- Trying to open a door or window with that kind of pressure wastes valuable time and energy. And if you were successful, the onrush of water most likely would push you away, even pin you under the dash.
- It’s only when internal pressure is equal to outside pressure that you can open the car door.
- When you are ready to open a door, the recommendation is to always choose a door on the side away from the water flow. It’s much easier to open a door on the down river side of flowing water.
- Once you have escaped via the door or an open window the next best thing might be the roof of the vehicle and to consider from there the safest way of moving to safety.
Equip yourself with a few necessities
- If the door does not open and the window does not turn down, you might have to break the window
- This might be t is easier said than done – automotive windows are made of tempered glass which is extremely strong.
- It takes a concentrated force against a very small area of the glass to shatter it.
- If you have a window shattering tool, use it to break either the side or rear window to escape.
- Spring-loaded punch has a steel tip that can shatter a window. Hardware stores call this an “automatic center punch” because it’s used to mark wood or metal before drilling a hole.
- Even though you might not have the best surviving tools for an “under water escape” there are everyday tools that might help you to shatter the window.
- An old spark plug, kept in your glove compartment, is heavy and strong enough to break a window.
Golden safety rules
- It may seem obvious – but don’t try to save anything except lives. Computers, phones, purses, jewellery, etc. can be replaced – you can’t!
- What about passengers in the vehicle? – Before you can save anyone else, you have to first save yourself!
- Once you reach the surface, take a few seconds to get your bearings, and if you have the swimming skills, take a deep breath and go back down. Hopefully, you can help someone else escape.
- Unless there is another person in the car that you are trying to save, you should never go back into a sinking or submerged vehicle. There is nothing, short of saving another person that is worth the risk.
- You and your passengers need to focus on one goal only and that is “to exit the car as quickly as possible”.
Remember these guidelines. Stay safe and Arrive Alive.